Simple Overview - Shoulder Anatomy
The glenohumeral joint or the shoulder joint is composed of two parts.
The humeral head (tip of our long arm bone), and the glenoid fossa of
the scapula (shoulder blade).
The shoulder joint can be thought of like a golf ball (humeral head), and a
tee (glenoid fossa).
The shoulder joint allows maximal mobility in various directions. However,
the increased mobility meant that the shoulder joint is more prone to instability, subluxation, and dislocation. Shoulder stability is important to prevent
Shoulder stability is dependent on two components. The static shoulder
stabilizers, and the dynamic shoulder stabilizers.
Shoulder Stability - Static Stabilizers
Consists of the shoulder ligaments, glenoid labrum, and joint capsule.
Shoulder Ligaments and Joint Capsule
- Consist of the superior/middle/inferior glenohumeral ligaments,
and the coracohumeral ligament.
- The shoulder ligaments and joint capsule prevent excessive translation
or movement of the humeral head out of the glenoid fossa (shoulder joint).
- Ring of fibrous or collagenous tissue that surrounds the glenoid fossa.
- The glenoid labrum increases the size and depth of the glenoid fossa
(the cavity that hosts the humeral head), thus induce increased
- The glenoid labrum increases the vertical diameter of the glenoid cavity
by 75%, and the horizontal diameter of the glenoid cavity by 50%
Shoulder Stability - Dynamic Stabilizers
Consists of the rotator cuff muscles, and scapular stabilizing muscles.
Rotator Cuff Muscles
- Consists of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and
subscapularis. These muscles work together to keep the humeral head
centered in the shoulder joint.
Steveston Medi Spa offers various massage services to help you relieve
pain, and stress.
1. Brukner P, Khan K. Brukner & Khan's Clinical Sports Medicine: Volume 1,
Injuries. 5th ed. North Ryde, N.S.W: McGraw-Hill Education (Australia); 2017.
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